Before regulatory agencies register pesticides and herbicides like 2,4-D for use, they thoroughly investigate the relationships these substances have on pets and wildlife. The following links will direct you to a variety of important studies dedicated to discovering the effects of 2,4-D on pets, laboratory animals and various animals in the wild. Both the U.S. EPA and Health Canada PMRA have concluded on several different occasions that the proper use of 2,4-D does not pose any unnecessary risk to domestic or wild animals. For more information on these regulatory decisions, see the Government Reviews
- Timchalk, C., Comparative Inter-Species Pharmacokinetics of Phenoxyacetic Acid Herbicides and Related Organic Acids. Evidence that the Dog is not a Relevant Species for Evaluation of Human Health Risk. Toxicology, 200 (2004) 1-19.
- Van Ravenzwaay, B. et al., Comparative Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) in Rat and Dog. Xenobiotica, 33:8, 805-821, 2003.
- Barnekow, D.E. et al., Uniformly 14C-Ring-Labeled 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: A Metabolism Study in Bluegill Sunfish, Lepmis Macrochirus. J. Agric. and Food Chem. Vol. 49, No. 6: 2853-2859, 2001. (Abstract only)
- Gavazza, A. et al., Association Between Canine Malignant Lymphoma, Living in Industrial Area, and Use of Chemicals by Dog Owners. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 15:3, 190-195, 2001. (Abstract only)
- Charles, J.M. et al., Developmental Toxicity Studies in Rats and Rabbits on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and its Forms. Toxicological Sciences, 60, 121-131, 2001.
- Barnekow, D.E. et al., Metabolism of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Laying Hens and Lactating Goats. J. Agric. and Food Chem. Vol. 49 (1): 156-163, 2001. (Abstract only)
- Mattsson, J.L. et al., Single-Dose and Chronic Dietary Neurotoxicity Screening Studies on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 40, 111-119, 1997.
- Charles, J.M. et al., Chronic Dietary Toxcicity/Oncogenicity Studies on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Rodents. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 33, 166- 172 (1996).
- Charles, J.M. et al., Comparative Subchronic Studies on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, Amine and Ester in Rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 33, 161-165, 1996.
- Charles, J.M. et al., Comparative Subchronic and Chronic Dietary Toxicity Studies on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, Amine and Ester in the Dog. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 29, 78-85 (1996).
- Carlo, G.L. et al., Review of a Study Reporting an Association Between 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and Canine Malignant Lymphoma: Report of an Expert Panel. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 16:3, 245-252, 1992. (Abstract only)