Just as important as considerations about human and animal health are the environmental effects of valuable chemical tools like 2,4-D herbicide. While the broad spectrum of benefits 2,4-D provides to homeowners, farmers, turf professionals and municipalities is well documented, questions occasionally arise regarding peripheral effects of 2,4-D and similar herbicides on the environment. The following are some of the most important studies documenting both the importance of 2,4-D and the information reviewed in detail by government regulatory agencies which has led them to decisively conclude that 2,4-D does not pose unreasonable risks to the environment when used as directed.
- Wilson, R.D. and Armbruster, J.A. The Dispersion and Dissipation of 2,4-D Concentrations when used for Typical Aquatic Applications, 2007.
- Hamburg, A. et al., Comparative Degradation of [14C]-2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Wheat and Potato after Foliar Application and in Wheat, Radish, Lettuce, and Apple after Soil Application. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001, 49, 146-155.
- Brown, J.N. et al., Herbicide Spray Drift Odor: Measurement and Toxicological Significance. Arch. Environ. Contam. & Toxicol, 38, 390-397, 2000.
- Gandhi, R. et al., Critical Evaluation of Cancer Risk from 2,4-D. Rev Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 167: 1-33, 2000.
- World Health Organization. Pesticide Residues in Food - 1998. Evaluations Part I - Residues Volume I. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 152/1: 179-312, 1998.
- Wilson, R.D. et al., 2,4-D Dissipation in Field Soils after Application of 2,4-D Dimethylamine Salt and 2,4-D 2-Ethylhexyl Ester. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 1239- 1246, 1997.
- Safe, Stephen H., Environmental and Dietary Estrogens and Human Health: Is there a Problem? Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol 103 No. 4: 346-351, 1995.
- Smith, A.E., A.J. Aubin and V.O Biederbeck. Effects of Long-term 2,4-D and MCPA Field Applications on Soil Residues and their Rates of Breakdown. Journal of Environmental Quality. Vol. 18:299-302. 1989.
- Grover, R. et al., Factors Affecting the Exposure of Ground-rig Applicators to 2,4-Dimethylamine Salt. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 677-686 (1986).
- Lavy, T.L. et al., (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic Acid Exposure Received by Aerial Application Crews During Forest Spray Operations. J. Agric. Food Chem., Vol. 30, No. 2, 375-381, 1982.