Biomonitoring Information with 2,4-D
Biomonitoring is the process of measuring chemical concentrations present in the human body. Researchers can use a variety of methods to determine precise micro-levels of a certain substance in the body at a given time, but an analysis of bodily fluids – usually blood or urine samples – is generally the most common and widely used.
Trace amounts of many chemicals related to the use of common products like medication, over-the-counter drugs, makeup, herbicides and many others are constantly present in the human body, and a common misconception is that their simple presence equates to personal health risks. This is not true.
Biomonitoring studies focus on measuring and identifying the significant effects of these chemicals as they relate to various human health conditions. Repeatedly, studies find that a minimal presence of a specific chemical is not necessarily cause for any concern. The individual toxicity of every chemical or substance is related to its specific dose or concentration.
Recently, there has been a great effort to compile biomonitoring data related to 2,4-D exposure. Scientists across North America are studying the levels of 2,4-D found in different populations ranging from the general public to agricultural applicators who use 2,4-D in the field.
The studies below represent the 2,4-D biomonitoring data that has been published to date. A summary and the full text of each article is posted where available.
- Oregon Exposure Investigation
- Aylward, L.L. et al., Biomonitoring Data for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in the US and Canada: Interpretation in a Public Health Risk Assessment Context Using Biomonitoring Equivalents.
- Thomas, K.W. et al., Urinary Biomarker, Dermal, and Air Measurement Results for 2,4-D and Chlorpyrifos Farm Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 1-16, 2009.
- Aylward L.L. and Hays, S.M., Biomonitoring Equivalents (BE) Dossier for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) (CAS No. 94-75-7). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 51 (2008) S37-48.
- Burns, C.J. et al., Pesticide Exposure Among Farm Workers. Environmental Research 105 (2007) 285-286.
- Alexander, B.H. et al., Biomonitoring of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Exposure and Dose in Farm Families. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 115, No. 3: 370-376, March 2007.
- Ross, J.H. et al., Dermal Absorption of 2,4-D: A Review of Species Differences, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 41, Issue 1, 82-91, 2005. (Abstract only)
- Ross, J. and Driver, J.H., The Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals: Estimated Population Exposure to 2,4-D and Relative Risk, 2,4-DTFII-0301, March 2003.
- Harris, S.A. and Solomon, K.R., Percutaneous Penetration of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and 2,4-D Dimethylamine Salt in Human Volunteers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 36:233-240, 1992.
- Harris, S.A. and Solomon, K.R., Human Exposure to 2,4-D Following Controlled Activities on Recently Sprayed Turf. J. Environ. Sci. Health B27(1), 9-22 (1992).
- Grover, R. et al., Factors Affecting the Exposure of Ground-rig Applicators to 2,4-Dimethylamine Salt. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 677-686 (1986).
- Lavy, T.L. et al., Exposure of Forest Workers Using Herbicides Measured, Arkansas Farm Research, V. 33(6), Nov.-Dec. 1984.
- Lavy, T.L. et al., (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic Acid Exposure Received by Aerial Application Crews During Forest Spray Operations. J. Agric. Food Chem., Vol. 30, No. 2, 375-381, 1982.
Other sources of information about Biomonitoring: